Movie Changes Bill O’Reilly Fan/Global Warming Denier’s Life

This is an interview with a woman exiting the movie “Chasing Ice“. The movie not only changed this woman’s mind about global warming, “it’s changed me as a person,” she said.  “I believed Bill O’Reilly”. She’s now ready to “undo her damage” for her children and grandkids.

 

The new documentary, Chasing Ice, captures climate change on film with two-dozen time-lapse cameras placed throughout the Arctic and other areas to document the melting of the glaciers. The film chronicles photographer James Balog’s work archiving the affects of climate change and other human activities on our planet. Click here for showtimes.

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Arctic Tipping Point? It Won’t Be Televised

 

Every year, Arctic sea ice melts during summer months and then refreezes during the colder winter months. On September 16th of this year, sea ice extent fell to 3.41 million square kilometers ( 1.32 square miles), the lowest summer minimum on satellite record.

As temperatures increase, and sea ice melts, this accelerates the melting of the Greenland ice sheet. Melting of the Greenland ice sheet results in sea level rise.

We are now in uncharted territory,” said National Snow and Ice Data Center Director Mark Serreze. “While we’ve long known that as the planet warms up, changes would be seen first and be most pronounced in the Arctic, few of us were prepared for how rapidly the changes would actually occur.”

As global warming impacts the Arctic region, more ice melts. The albedo of the Arctic is reduced, meaning less solar energy is reflected and more is absorbed. More energy absorbed means greater warming, causing more ice melt. This compounding process is called a positive feedback. In the Arctic, we call this process the ice-albedo feedback. And many are concerned that this rapid melt of the Arctic may translate into a tipping point for our global climate.

Co-founder of the Weather Underground, Dr. Jeff Masters blogged, To me, seeing the record Arctic sea ice loss of 2012 is like discovering a growing fire burning in Earth’s attic. It is an emergency that requires immediate urgent attention. If you remove an area of sea ice 43% the size of the Contiguous U.S. from the ocean, it is guaranteed to have a significant impact on weather and climate. The extra heat and moisture added to the atmosphere as a result of all that open water over the pole may already be altering jet stream patterns in fall and winter, bringing an increase in extreme weather events…. The house all of humanity lives on is on fire. The fire is certain to spread, since we’ve ignored it for too long. It is capable of becoming a raging fire that will burn down our house, crippling civilization, unless we take swift and urgent action to combat it.

But in a study published by Media Matters late last week, TV news covered Paul Ryan’s workout over three times more than Arctic sea loss. And the three major cable outlets covered Ryan’s workouts over six times more than Arctic sea loss; mentioning it only eight times in four months. According to Media Matters, three of these mentions were in the context of how ice impacts drilling expeditions in the Arctic, and the one mention on Fox News dismissed the problem entirely. Meanwhile, the cable outlets have discussed Ryan’s workouts 53 times.

 

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How Will Romney Address Climate Change?

Well if you look on Mitt’s Mitt Romneywebsite, the answer seems to be ignore it. After all, he is in favor of that last-nail-in-our-collective-coffin tar sands pipeline. That’s the one that brings the dirty oil across America to its ports and gives Canada fantabulous access to the international fossil fuel market. Take that energy independence.

But, let’s all ask Mitt these two questions directly to see if he will give a response:

  • Do you disagree with the scientific consensus that humans are warming the planet?
  • If not, what do you plan to do to solve the climate crisis if you are elected President.

You can sign a petition from 350.org to ask those questions right here.

Or go to http://act.350.org/sign/Mitt_and_climate .

 

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Bill McKibben on US Bullying Climate Talks, COP16 and 350

Bill McKibben Portrait, Hi Res
Image by 350.org via Flickr

Broadcasting from Cancún, Mexico where the COP16 Climate Summit is taking place, Democracy Now caught up with author and  350.org co-founder Bill McKibben. Here is an excerpt from that interview (embedded above):

AMY GOODMAN: For more on the issue of the WikiLeaks cables and the international climate change talks, I spoke with the longtime environmental writer and activist Bill McKibben here in Cancún.

He’s the founder of 350.org and the winner of the 2010 Puffin/Nation Prize for Creative Citizenship.Well, here in Cancún on Saturday night, just before he flew to New York, I asked Bill McKibben about his reaction to the diplomatic cables released by WikiLeaks showing how the U.S. manipulated last year’s climate talks in [Copenhagen].

BILL McKIBBEN: Some of the new data coming out today makes it clear that everyone’s suspicion that the U.S. was both bullying and buying countries into endorsing their do-little position on climate were even sort of worse than we had realized. You know, the sums that people were tossing around and the demands that they were making of small nations, in particular, to endorse their stand were pretty—were pretty gross, not because it comes as any great surprise that we toss our power around—that’s what we do—but because on this issue, above all else, you know, in the end, making some political agreement enforcing our particular set of interests is such a bad idea, because it’s physics and chemistry that are actually driving the tune. And we can, you know, win every fight because we’re powerful and wealthy and whatever, and we’re still going to lose the war just as badly as everybody else. So, I think it kind of undermines the bankruptcy of a lot of this COP process and the fact that we’re going to need, in civil society, to build a movement big enough to really exert some power. I don’t know whether we can do that. We haven’t done it yet. The oil industry and their friends in the U.S. government are, you know, winning most of the battles. But we’re going to keep trying. And this gives us kind of new impetus to do it.

AMY GOODMAN: And the reports that Bolivia, Venezuela, Ecuador and other countries, the ALBA countries, are threatening to pull out of these talks if countries do not commit again to Kyoto, to mandatory caps on emissions?

BILL McKIBBEN: Well, I mean, here’s one way to look at—sort of look at it the opposite way. The first people who threatened to kind of walk away from the talks were the Americans last week. “Unless everybody else signs up for targets, we’re going to walk out.” OK? In certain ways, that would be the best thing that could happen. This is what for 15 years now the dynamic of these talks has been. The U.S. comes and says, “Weaken the agreement, so we can get Congress to go along and do something about it.” Everybody weakens the agreement, first in Kyoto and then in Copenhagen. And then Congress doesn’t agree anyway. You know, you sort of—they sort of—it’s like a flirtation that never goes anywhere. And it’s wrecked the whole process, time after time after time.

And now the U.S. is doing it again. This time they’re saying, “You don’t get any climate aid, unless we weaken the agreement and do what we want,” and, you know, so on and so forth. Well, look, I’d say, if you’re really counting, if you’re a poor nation counting on some climate aid from the U.S., man, ask for a receipt, because I’m not convinced the new Senate and House is going to come across with anything anyway. Four U.S. senators on Thursday said—sent a letter to Secretary of State Clinton, saying, “Don’t give them any money at all for anything. This global warming is a hoax, and we don’t want American money wasted on those nasty poor countries,” you know? America has poisoned this process time and time again, and we really need to start standing up to that.

AMY GOODMAN: The fact that the House is saying the Republicans, when they take over the leadership, will get rid of the global warming—the Climate Change Commission?

BILL McKIBBEN: It’s as if they’re saying—I mean, literally as if they’re saying, “We’re going to stick our fingers in our ears, and the problem will go away. We’ll never have another hearing on it, so therefore it won’t be happening.” I’m afraid that’s about as unlikely a proposition—I mean, more power to them if you could make global warming disappear by simply not talking about it. It would be a hell of a good strategy. But my guess is that physics and chemistry will be remarkably unimpressed by this position, you know? I mean, Congress—the sort of delusions of grandeur within the Beltway are enormous. They think because they can change the tax code, they can change the laws of nature. But that’s not possible.

AMY GOODMAN: And when you say 350 parts per million, explain.

BILL McKIBBEN: Three-fifty is the most important number in the world. Three years ago, our best scientists at NASA said any amount of carbon in the atmosphere greater than 350 parts per million is not compatible with the planet on which civilization developed or to which life on earth is adapted. OK? The trouble is, because we’ve burned so much coal and gas and oil already, the atmosphere here in Cancún and every place else in the world is 390 parts per million CO2. That’s why the Arctic is melting. It’s why Russia is on fire. It’s why Pakistan is drowning. It’s why we’ve got to work way faster than we thought we did even a few years ago.

And so, at 350.org, we’ve rallied people. You know, we held, this fall, this global work party with 7,400 events in 188 countries, what CNN called the most widespread day of political action in the planet’s history. And we’re beginning to build this movement. It’s not anywhere near big enough yet. I don’t know if it’ll get there. But we’re trying as hard as we can.

AMY GOODMAN: And Cancún? You’re already talking about Johannesburg, South Africa, next year.

BILL McKIBBEN: Yes.

AMY GOODMAN: But Cancún isn’t done.

BILL McKIBBEN: Cancún, I mean, it’s like watching—I mean, this process, this U.N. process, has been going on forever, and it’s getting nowhere, and it’s not going to get anywhere substantive, until we have some power from the outside to push it.

AMY GOODMAN: I saw some young people with T-shirts that said, “You have been negotiating all my life.”

BILL McKIBBEN: It’s a—somebody, some friend of mine, said, who I saw the other day drawing on the street, who I hadn’t seen since the last one of these, said, “It’s just like a family reunion aboard the Titanic, you know?” And that’s sort of what it feels like. We can’t keep doing this. Until we can build some power outside of these arenas to actually push these guys, you know, this is—in the end, it’s not about how well people are communicating or how great the policy papers are. It’s on who has the power. And at the moment, that power rests in the hands of the fossil fuel industry and their allies in governments around the world. And until we build some independent outside movement power to push back, then we’re never going to get—we’re going to get scraps from the table, at the very best.

AMY GOODMAN: Do you see the fossil fuel industry here in Cancún?

BILL McKIBBEN: You see their fingerprints on every single thing that happens. When, you know, Saudi Arabia stands up to say something, when the U.S. stands up to say something, it’s on limitations—you know, they’re limitations imposed by the fossil fuel industry. That’s who’s speaking. That’s where the power lies.

AMY GOODMAN: Bill McKibben, winner of the 2010 Puffin Prize. He was speaking to us in Cancún. He’s founder of 350.org.

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Alec Loorz: Climate Youth Activists Unite!

Last month, I streamed some of the live Bioneers 21 Conference. I wanted to see James Hansen, having recently finished his book, Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth About the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity.  After his presentation, Dr. Hansen introduced a face I hadn’t seen before, Alec Loorz.  Sixteen-year-old, Alec leads a non-profit organization called Kids Vs Global Warming . In this inspiring video, Alec quotes Thomas Jefferson,”every generation needs a new revolution.” The core of the youth’s revolution is sustainability, which Alec defines as “Living as if the future matters. Living our lives in a way that values trees, air, animals and future generations just as much as short-term interests.”

Alec is organizing a Million Kids March for Climate Action on Mother’s Day, May 8, 2011 where youth and the adults who care about their future can march together in all 50 states. You can find out more by going to his website, kids-vs-global-warming.com or by texting iMatter to 411 247. Kids Vs Global Warming also has an iphone app called iMatter.

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10/10/10 -7347 Global Work Parties in 188 Countries- the Biggest Event Ever on Planet Earth

“It isn’t enough to talk about peace. One must believe in it, And it isn’t enough to believe in it. One must work at it.” –Eleanor Roosevelt

And there was a whole lot of work going on yesterday. According to 350.org‘s co-founder, Bill McKibben “it was the most widespread day of political engagement in the planet’s history, and a real chance for people across the world to say the same thing: We’re fed up with the inaction of our leaders on climate, and we want them to work half as hard as we’re working. Now!”

I participated in two Global Work Parties. The first one was at my son’s school and involved getting our organic edible schoolyard garden ready for fall planting and painting a fence. The second event was on Fort Lauderdale Beach where there was a Critical Mass bike ride and beach clean-up. It was an extraordinary day and the fact that my family and I were taking part in an event that was repeating itself simultaneously around the globe, made it even more impactful.

So, rather than talking about the political movement here (there’s time for that later), I encourage you to go to the 350.org flickr photostream and let the photos tell the story. The people united, can never be defeated.

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Global Warning, Our Oil Addiction and Living on a New Planet

Narrated by Leo DiCaprio, this clip is based on the book by Thom Hartmann, The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight: The Fate of the World and What We Can Do Before It’s Too Late.

“Picture this, a blue planet protected by a thin layer of atmosphere that keeps temperature, air and water in perfect balance to maintain life. In the cold depths of space, this planet is a virtual paradise, the only one know of its kind. And, it is our planet, Earth. But something is wrong…human civilization and our relentless consumption has brought this planet to the brink. But specifically, our addiction to one single resource may push us over the edge. And, that resource is Oil.”

“So get educated, stay educated, so we can think for ourselves and join the fight to save this unique blue planet for future generations,” DiCaprio closes. But, this problem of climate change is not really just a problem for future generations. As author Bill McKibben argues in his new book, Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet, we no longer live on the planet Earth where the climate has allowed human civilization to flourish over the past 10,000 years, but on a new planet with more erratic and extreme weather. McKibben calls the planet Eaarth. We are now living with human-induced climate change. While  hoping we can still return the concentration  of CO2 in our atmosphere to 350ppm (someday because even if we cut emissions to zero, we’ve already committed the planet to further warming), we must focus our efforts to adapt to that change. McKibben suggests lightly, carefully, gracefully with a focus on local systems.

350.org activity photo climate day 2009
Image via Wikipedia

We also must engage our political system. We’ve seen no seriousness or urgency out of the Senate as the Clean Energy and Climate Change bill languished. As McKibben writes in the Huffington Post (linked below), “Political time is in short supply, too. So far, of course, Washington has done nothing—the Senate is currently considering a watered-down version of a watered-down bill, one that would only apply to electric utilities and only cause the slowest of changes, and even that has not persuaded President Obama to knock heads. He’ll go after BP, but not the GOP—the bill’s great champion, John Kerry, summed up the prevailing strategy for winning votes: “We believe we have compromised significantly, and we’re prepared to compromise further.” “

We can still bring change through grassroots efforts, like those of 350.org, 1Sky and Repower America (links below) and also through the efforts of many individuals calling their Senators to tell them that we need a bill that addresses climate change, carbon pollution and clean energy now. Get educated, stay educated and get active. Your future is now.

Links to Help You Get Active on this Issue:

Where to Find my U.S. Senators Contact Info

Repower America: Together, We Can Solve It

350.org

1Sky

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350.org Founder, Author Bill McKibben on “Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet”

Ahead of Earth Day and Cochabamba, Bolivia’s indigenous summit on climate change along with the anticipated unveiling of a Senate climate bill this coming week, Democracy Now spoke with someone who sounded one of the earliest alarms about global warming. In 1989, Author Bill McKibben wrote The End of Nature but his warnings were largely ignored. Below are some excerpts from that interview.

BILL McKIBBEN: On his new book, Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet:  Look, the planet that we live on now is different, and in fundamental ways, from the one that we were born onto. The atmospheres holds about five percent more water vapor than it did forty years ago. That’s an incredible change in one of the basic physical parameters of the planet, and it explains all those deluges and downpours. The ocean is 30 percent more acidic, as it absorbs all that carbon from the atmosphere. NASA said yesterday that we’ve just come through the warmest January, February, March on record, that 2010 is going to be the warmest year that we’ve ever seen.

And we begin to see just in every day in the newspaper the practical effects of all this. Last week it was Rio de Janeiro with absolutely record rainfalls, causing landslides that killed thousands. Today, in the run-up to the summit in Bolivia, in Peru an enormous chunk of glacier fell off a mountainside into a lake, set up a seventy-five-foot-high wave that killed some people and destroyed the one water processing plant in the whole area. These sort of things happen now someplace around the world every single day, because we’ve undermined the basic physical stability of this planet.

On solutions and limits on growth: Well, reversing the trend is hard—impossible, in fact. We’re not going to stop global warming. We can keep it from getting worse than it has to get. For that to happen, Juan, we need things to happen at two levels. One is the governmental, national and global. We need a stiff price on carbon, one that reflects the damage it does in the atmosphere, that will reorient our economy in the direction of renewable energy instead of fossil fuel. But we’re also going to need, because we have a new planet, a new set of habits for inhabiting it successfully.

Our fundamental habit for the last couple of hundred years has been to assume that growth is going to solve every problem that we face. I think now we’ve fundamentally reached the limits to growth that people started talking about fifty years ago. When you melt the Arctic, that’s not a good sign. So we’re going to need, instead, to start focusing on security, on stability, on resilience, on figuring out how to allow communities to thrive, even on a tough planet. And I think that that has a lot to do with decentralization, with scaling down, with spreading out, with building food systems and energy systems that aren’t too big to fail, that are small enough and stable enough to succeed.

On Coal: Coal is the most dangerous substance on the planet, in almost every way—I mean, for the people who have to mine it and for the landscapes where it exists, like across southern Appalachia, for the people who have to breathe the smoke around power plants, mostly in our inner cities, but most fundamentally for the climate. Coal produces more carbon per BTU than anything else you can burn. And as a result, more than anything, it’s what’s driving our climate problem.

We’re not going to have, in the time that we require it, anything that really resembles clean coal. What we need to do is make that transition away from coal, and make it as fast as we can. Job one is putting a really significant price on carbon, so that coal begins to pay for some of the incredible damage that it does to the environment.

On 350.org: Three-fifty is the most important number in the world. NASA scientists have said that any value for carbon in the atmosphere greater than 350 parts per million is not compatible with the planet on which civilization developed and to which life on earth has adapted. That’s strong language, and it’s stronger still, because we’re past it already. We’re at 390 parts per million or so today and rising about two parts per million a year. That’s why the Arctic is melting. It’s why the oceans are acidifying. And it’s why we need a movement around the world to force political action sooner rather than later. We’re running out of time.

For the full interview, click on the video below:

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Additional readings:

Words of Power: Do You Understand the Power of the Pebble People? For Benazir Bhutto on Earth Day, with Help from Alice Walker, Yoko Ono and Bill McKibben

James Hansen on Cap-and-Trade, Tipping Points and Where We Go From Here

Image in public domain from NASA. http://www.n...

Image via Wikipedia

In a recent interview, post- the COP15 Conference, the nation’s top climate scientist and director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, James Hansen discussed his views on cap and trade, tipping points and how we can move forward in the aftermath of Copenhagen.

Hansen also has a new book, Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth About the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity where he discusses these issues at length.

The entire interview with Amy Goodman is visible at the end of this post. I’ve pulled out some highlights.

Hansen says, “I’m actually quite pleased with what happened at Copenhagen, because now we have basically a blank slate. We have China and the United States talking to each other, and it’s absolutely essential. Those are the two big players that have to come to an agreement. But it has to be an honest agreement, one which addresses the basic problem. And that is that fossil fuels are the cheapest source of energy on the planet. And unless we address that and put a price on the emissions, we can’t solve the problem.”

On Cap and Trade: “Cap and trade, they attempt to put a cap on different sources of carbon dioxide emissions. They say there’s a limit on how much a given industry in a country can emit. But the problem is that the emissions just go someplace else. That’s what happened after Kyoto, and that’s what would happen again, if—as long as fossil fuels are the cheapest energy, they will be burned someplace. You know, the Europeans thought they actually reduced their emissions after Kyoto, but what happened was the products that had been made in their countries began to be made in other countries, which were burning the cheapest form of fossil fuel, so the total emissions actually increased.”

But what you need to do—and many people call that a tax, but in fact the way that it should be done is to give all of the money that’s collected in a fee, that should be across the board on oil, gas and coal, collect that money at the mine or at the port of entry from the fossil fuel companies, and then distribute that to the public on a per capita basis to legal residents of the country. Then the person that does—that has less than average carbon emissions would actually make money from the process, and it would stimulate the economy. It would give the public the funds that they need in order to invest in low-carbon technologies. The next time they buy a vehicle, they should get a low-emission one. They should insulate their homes. Such actions. And those people who do that will come out ahead. That’s—the economists agree that that’s the way you should address the problem, with a price on carbon. Otherwise, the emissions will just continue to go up.”

On Tipping Points: “Well, there are tipping points in the climate system, where we can push the system beyond a point where the dynamics begins to take over. For example, in the case of an ice sheet, once it begins to disintegrate and slide into the ocean, you’ve passed the point where you can stop it. So that’s what we have to avoid.

Another tipping point is in the survival of species. As we begin to put pressure on species and move the climate zone so that some of the species can’t survive because they can only live within certain climate parameters, because species depend upon each other, you can drive an ecosystem such that when some species go extinct, then the entire ecosystem will collapse. So you don’t want to push the system that far.

And these tipping points are not hypothetical. We know from the earth’s history that these have happened in the past, especially when we’ve had large global warmings. We’ve driven more than half the species on the planet to extinction. And then, over hundreds of thousands and millions of years, new species come into being. But for any time scale that we can imagine, we would be leaving a much more desolate planet for our children and grandchildren and future generations. So we don’t want to pass those tipping points.”

On Atmospheric CO2:What we have now is 387 parts per million. But we’re going to have to bring that down to 350 parts per million or less. And that’s still possible, provided we phase out coal emissions over the next few decades. That’s possible. We would also have to prohibit unconventional fossil fuels like tar sands and oil shale.”

On Moving Forward: “What needs to happen right now—we have this great opportunity this spring, I would say, to have discussions in the House and Senate about what really needs to be done to solve this problem. And it’s not cap and trade with offsets. We can prove that that’s completely ineffectual. What we have to do is put a price on carbon, and the money that’s collected needs to be given to the public, not used for boondoggles, like Congress is taking—plans to take the money from cap and trade that’s collected in selling the permits to pollute and to use that money for things like clean coal or to give the money back to the polluters. That won’t solve the problem. We have to give the money to the public.”

“There were a couple of encouraging things in Copenhagen. For one thing, Al Gore made a clear statement that a carbon price is a better solution than cap and trade. And John Kerry also indicated that he had an open mind on that question. So that’s why I say the discussions in the next few months are very important, because the way the United States goes is going to determine the way the world goes, I think.”

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Dry Season Returns & Broward Commission Considers 2-day-a-Week Watering Restrictions

Update: January 12, 2010 Broward Commission Unanimously Pass 2-Day Week Water Restrictions with an Eye Toward Enforcement http://bit.ly/7PA6iB

Most residents in South Florida realize we have two seasons; rainy and dry. Yet, how many realize what a precarious water dance we do?

According to the South Florida Water Management District, Florida receives an average annual rainfall of 53 inches, making it one of the wettest states in the US. Except, in the central and southern part of the state, most of this rain falls during just four summer months with much of it lost to evaporation. Because of this, the region is prone to extreme weather conditions of flood and drought.

Global warming is likely to exacerbate those extremes. During the rainy season, increases in temperatures caused by climate change will lead to higher evaporation rates and more intense rainfall events. We are also likely to see more record drought years. The 2008-2009 South Florida dry season became the third driest on record dating back to 1932. 2006 and 2007 were the driest back-to-back calendar years.

Amazingly, the latest US Geological Survey water use report shows South Floridians average per capita water use of 179 gallons per day! This exceeds that of any other part of Florida, and is twice the national average.  In Broward County, this could equate to as much as 322 million gallons of water per day. It is estimated that half of that goes to water our lawns (with more than 50 percent of irrigation water lost to evaporation and runoff due to overwatering).

In a recent email to residents, Commissioner Kristin Jacobs said, “Continuing to use water in this way will undoubtedly lead to seriously adverse consequences for not only our residents, but also the Everglades – which occupy two thirds of Broward County – and our sole source of potable water, the Biscayne Aquifer.”

At the Tuesday, December 8, 2009 County Commission meeting, the Broward Commission will be considering enactment of a permanent, year-round, two day per week landscape irrigation water conservation ordinance. Nearby, Miami-Dade and Lee counties have already implemented permanent two day a week year-round watering restrictions.

You are key to passing this ordinance. If you live in Broward County, tell your Commissioner that you want them to protect our water resources.

Commissioner Telephone Number Email Address
Commissioner Ilene Lieberman, District 1 (954) 357-7001 ilieberman@broward.org
Commissioner Kristin D. Jacobs, District 2 (954) 357-7002 kjacobs@broward.org
County Mayor Stacy Ritter, District 3 (954) 357-7003 sritter@broward.org
County Vice Mayor Ken Keechl, District 4 (954) 357-7004 kkeechl@broward.org
Commissioner Lois Wexler, District 5 (954) 357-7005 lwexler@broward.org
Commissioner Sue Gunzburger, District 6 (954) 357-7006 sgunzburger@broward.org
Commissioner John E. Rodstrom, Jr., District 7 (954) 357-7007 jrodstrom@broward.org
Commissioner Diana Wasserman-Rubin, District 8 (954) 357-7008 dwassermanrubin@broward.org
District 9 (954) 357-7009 cymartin@broward.org
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